人工智能领域,中美是要协调合作还是彼此对抗_中国
人工智能范畴,中美是要调和协作仍是互相对立 【文/ 傅莹】 众所周知,人类间隔完成超级人工智能还很悠远,可是,人工智能在一些详细范畴和特定状况与束缚之下,现已逾越了人类,并且其规模在灵敏扩展。人们对由此或许取得的优点寄予厚望,但一起,惊骇和忧虑也随之而来。 亨利·基辛格博士谈到人工智能彻底改变人类认识的潜在或许性,忧虑人工智能或将完结启蒙运动以来的理性年代。他是从前史、哲学和战略的视点看待这个问题的,他强有力的论述令人深思。 美国在人工智能技能立异上处于抢先位置,而我国随后,特别在人工智能技能的大规模和活泼的使用方面成绩斐然,中美两国有更大的职责,去考虑未来、考虑应当怎么做。 可是,咱们在议论未来和怎么面临技能前进之前,首要需求想理解,中美是要调和协作仍是互相对立?当时两国之间日益恶化的严重联系,必然会影响到咱们怎么应对未来的应战。也就是说,未来咱们是要一起尽力,让技能与人类共生,让世界防止技能危险,并保证技能的前进能够促进文明的昌盛?仍是要各奔前程,各自挟制技能削弱甚至损伤对方? 咱们的挑选将影响到未来怎么应对科技前进带来的应战。暗斗期间,美国和苏联阅历了巨细屡次危机,有的甚至要挟消灭人类,才终究到达某些自我束缚和共存的组织。当今世界愈加杂乱,得失的影响更大,莫非还需求更大的危机才干找到正确的路途吗?中美能否在现有世界系统内处理不合、和平共处?抑或要好像美国一股力气所推进的那样,互相脱钩,从而割裂世界?后者也是许多亚洲领导人甚至联合国秘书长等多方呼吁、正告的景象。 我国三十年多来一向处于高速工业化的进程中,选用的是两个世纪以来世界上连续呈现的一切根本规矩。今天,我国榜首次跻身新技能前进的榜首队伍,除了尽己所能地向前跨进,我国人也逐步认识到本身担负的拟定新规矩的职责。 传统的立法方法是,要在社会构成一致的基础上,考虑怎么拟定规矩。可是,如今的人工智能技能一旦投入使用,随即便会呈现对恰当管理的需求。所以,对任何政府而言,人工智能技能使用的监管都是一项新应战。对此,我国政府的方针是,一方面鼓舞相关工业的开展,另一方面供给整体指导方针。 我国的国家新一代人工智能管理专业委员会于本年2月由科技部牵头组成,于6月发布新一代人工智能管理的八项准则,包含调和友爱、公平公平、容纳同享、尊重隐私、安全可控、共担职责、敞开协作、灵敏管理。为了推进这些准则落地,到2023年,政府将在全国布局建造20个新一代人工智能立异开展试验区,查验八项准则的施行和搜集反应。其他办法还包含供给敞开渠道,鼓舞企业拟定自己的标准,人工智能研制项目也需求恪守这八点准则。 本年8月,全国人大常委会审议经过民法典人格权编草案,其间针对搜集、处理自然人个人信息做出明确规矩,要求有必要“征得该自然人或许其监护人赞同”等,并且把个人生物辨认信息也归入维护规模。另一项重要开展是国家网信办发布的《儿童个人信息网络维护规矩》,自2019年10月1日起收效。 人工智能技能的生长依托的是科研人员同享思想、互相学习,是全球协作的产品,跨国企业构建的人工智能渠道也在快速扩展。要想标准这个进程,各国需求拟定互通的道德标准和职业规矩。因而,我国在这方面的尽力,也需求与世界其他国家和地区、包含美国的尽力,互相联通和调和。为此,我国对与各国讨论扩展一致、缩小差异,秉持敞开情绪。 不管我国仍是美国都不或许独占世界的技能前进。假如两国采纳互补的情绪,人工智能技能的远景会愈加光亮;但假如不再协作,两边都将遭受丢失,人工智能的整体开展也会付出代价。特别是,假如任由传统的地缘政治、零和竞赛思想主导两国联系,效果将是自毁性质的。 在增进了解和削减误解方面,中方能够做的尽力包含,愈加主动地与世界社会交流。考虑到今天之我国在很大程度上处在世界舞台的聚光灯下,当咱们发布一些重要文件时,其恰当的译文的发布平等重要,对误解的及时弄清也是必要的。例如,美方以为我国的野心是主导人工智能的未来,这方面的惊骇心理是美将科技视为与我国进行战略抢夺渠道的首要原因。而引发这种忧虑的原因之一是,误读了2017年7月在北京发布的《新一代人工智能开展规划》。 规划提出了政府希抢夺完成的方针,榜首步是到2020年我国的人工智能整体技能和使用与世界先进水平同步;第二步是到2025年基础理论完成重大突破,部分技能与使用到达世界抢先水平;第三步是到2030年人工智能理论、技能与使用整体到达世界抢先水平,成为世界首要人工智能立异中心。需求提示的是,规划中提出的方针是成为世界立异中心之一,而不是唯一和排他性的“中心”。对这个方针的正确理解非常重要,中方的这些希望都是合理和正常的。 美国企图把高科技作为战略抢夺的渠道,而中方对此并不以为然。实际状况是,在这一范畴存在着建造性和战略性的互相依存,当然,无可否认,在科学和工业界,竞赛在所难免。科睿唯安(Clarivate Analytics)的数据显现,从2013年到2017年,中美两国世界协作论文数量增加最快,协作论文达4000多篇。当时,美国企业在技能上(特别半导体)抢先,美国的大学也在世界上居于前列。而我国具有最大的用户商场,为算法更快的迭代晋级供给了条件。中美如能相辅相成,互相都能从中获益,但假如美方固执推进脱钩,则会迫使中方寻求其他协作伙伴,或许自己设法处理,这也会削弱美国企业的位置和影响。 我国希冀的未来世界是一个互相依存的命运一起体,采纳的方针是促进广泛世界对话,积极参与协作,鼓舞拟定一起规矩,以完成安全、牢靠、负职责的人工智能。正如习近平主席所指出的:“我国愿同世界社会一道,共创智能年代,同享智能效果。” (作者系外交部前副部长、清华大学战略与安全研讨中心主任。) Fu Ying’s Remarks onUnderstanding the AI Challenge to Humanityduring the New Economy Forum (A sub-Forum on Understanding the AI challenge to Humanity was held during the New Economic Forum in Beijing at 10:45am November 21, 2019, Yanqi Lake International Conference Center, Beijing. It was chaired by Walter Isaacson, participated by Dr. Henry Alfred Kissinger,Fu Ying, Eric Schmidt. The following is Fu Ying’s remarkes taken from her notes.) Fu Ying: We all know that the super-intelligent artificial intelligence (AI) is still far to reach for the mankind, however, AI has exceeded humans in some concreat domains and under specific constrains, and the areas are spreading rapidly. There is huge expectation of the benefit it may bring, but fear and concern are also rising. Dr. Kissinger has talked about AI’s potential to fundamentally alter human consciousness and the danger of AI ending the age of reasoning since the Enlightenment. He is looking at it from a historical, philosophical and strategic perspective providing a powerful argument which has given us a lot to think about. US is leading in AI technological innovation and China is following and is rapidly creating active and massive applications. These two countries should shoulder greater responsibilities in thinking ahead about the future and about what need to be done. But before we can talk about the future, and about how we are going forward about technological advance, we first and foremost need to think through about whether we are going to do it together or if we are turning each other into enemies? The current worsening tension between China and the US cannot but have an impact on how we are going to deal with the challenges down the road. That is to say, are we going to work together to make technology symbiotic to humans, help the world avoid technology risks, and ensure that the technology advances make our civilizations prosper? Or are we going to go separate ways and each trying to use the technology to undermine, even hurt the other side? The choices we make will affect how we tackle the challenges posed by the advancement of science and technology. The US and the USSR during the cold war had to go through many crises,some threatened to bring the mankind to doom, before arriving at some kind of arrangement for self-constraint and co-existence. The world today is more complicated and there is more at stake. Do we need bigger crisis to help us finding the right path? Can China and the US solve the differences and peacefully co-exist in the current world system or would they decouple like some people in Washington are trying to push for and therefore tearing the world apart, which is a prospect many Asian leaders and the UN Secretary General have been warning us against? As far as China is concerned, the country has been on the fast pace of industrialization over the past three decades and has embraced all the basic rules developed in the past two centuries. Now, it is for the first time that China itself is among the first echelon in advanced technology. Apart from trying to do well, China is also growingly aware of rule-making responsibilities. The traditional legislative approach is to wait for consensus in the society before a regulatory idea is developed. With current AI technology, the need for proper governance appears as soon as the application is made. Therefore, it’s a new challenge for any government to manage this new regulatory challenge. The policy of the Chinese Government is on the one hand to encourage the advancement of industries, on the other hand, providing general guidelines. China’s New Generation AI Governance Expert Committee which was set up by the Ministry of Science and Technology February 2019 has launched the 8 points principles in July. They include: harmony and human-friendliness, fairness and justice, inclusiveness and sharing, respect for privacy, security and controllability, shared responsibility, open collaboration and agile governance. To put these principles into practice, the government will set up 20 pilot zones by 2023, for testing and collecting feedbacks on how the principles are being practiced. Other measures include offering open platforms to encourage enterprises to formulate their own standards. The R&D projects will also be measured by the 8 points principles. In the Civil Code Part on Personality Rights which was adopted by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress August this year, there is particular emphasis on the protection of personal information (the collection and use of natural persons’ personal information can only be made with the consent of the natural person or the guardian). It also puts personal biometric data under protection. Another important development is the adoption by the National Network Information Office of the Provisions on the Cyber Protection of Children’s Personal Information which came into effective on October 1st, 2019. AI technology research has always developed based on global collaboration, with researchers sharing ideas, and building on each other’s work. And AI platforms by multinational companies are also expanding globally. To regulate its progress, countries need to develop compatible ethical norms and industrial rules. So China’s governance effort needs to be connected with similar efforts in other parts of the world, the US in particular. The country also takes an open attitude in terms of discussing and working with other countries on creating and expanding common ground and reduce differences. Neither China nor the US can monopolize the world’s technological progress. If the two countries complement each other, the prospects for AI technology is brighter; but if they stop working with each other, both will suffer and the general progress will pay a price. Should they allow the geopolitical and zero-sum competitive philosophy dominate their relations, it would be self-destructive. One thing the Chinese side can do to improve the perceptions and reduce misunderstandings is to be proactive in communicating with the international community. Since China now is very much under the spot light of the world stage, it is important that when we launch major domestic documents, there should also be proper translation to go with them so that the world reads China’s intention accurately. Should there be misunderstandings, timely explanation is also necessary. Take for example, the American fear of China’s ambition to dominate the AI’s future has prompted it to take the scientific and technological advance as the platfore of strategic rivalry. Aparantly its fear partly comes from mis-reading of the “New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan” issued in Beijing July 2017. The Plan laid out the targets the government wanted to promote, including: 1st step, for the Chinese AI technological development reaching the world advanced level by 2020; 2nd step, achieving major break through in basic theary and reaching the world leading level by 2025 in some parts of the technology and application; 3rd step, move to the forefront in theary, technology and application and become a major innovation center by 2030. It needs to be noted that what China wants to achieve is to become one of the world’s innovative centers, not “the” only and exclusive center. These are quite reasonable expectations. The US is trying taking hi-tech as a platform of strategic rivalry which is not how China sees it. The reality in the field is a kind of constructive and strategic mutual dependency though no one can deny that competition in the fields of science and industry is not an abnormal phenomenon. According to Clarivate Analytics, from 2013 to 2017, the number of AI related papers co-authored by Chinese and Americans grew the fastest, reaching 4,000 in 5 years. American companies lead in technologies (especially in semiconductor), and American universities are ahead of others in the world. But China has the largest user market and therefore provides faster iterative upgrading for algorithm. So, the two countries can benefit tremendously in complementary partnership, unless the US forces a decoupling, and pushes China to find other partners or develop its own solutions which will also weaken Amercian companies’ position and influence. So for China, the preferred future is a world of interdependent community with shared future and the policy is to engage in wide international conversations for encouraging collaboration and develop common rules for safe, reliable and responsible AI. As the Chinese President Xi Jinping said, “China is willing to work with the international community to create an age of intelligence and share the achievements of the intelligence.” (end) Fu Ying is former Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of China and the Chairperson of the Center for International Security and Strategy of Tsinghua University

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